International Domain Registration
Domain is the name of the website, as in [http://www.websitename.com]. domain registration is the process by which the regulatory body, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), registers the names of the websites in its Domain Name Server (DNS) database. It not only allocates the new names to the websites upon request, but also ensures that all domain names are unique, and the database is available for everyone to see. The latter part of the website address, such as com or org is referred to as the top-level domain. This gives a general idea about the website and who owns it. For instance .gov means that the website is owned by the government, and ?.com? means it is for commercial purpose.
Initially, when the Internet was set up, by just providing the IP (Internet Protocol) address, websites could be accessed. An example of what an IP address looks like is 418.104.22.168. An IP address is unique to every computer, just like a phone number or an address. However, as the number of users increased, it was not logical to expect users to remember number combinations. Therefore, the naming system was brought in place, by which websites would have their names, which were easy to remember. In 1993, the InterNIC (Network Information Centers) was set up, whose job was to maintain a database of domain names and their respective IP addresses in the US. Each country has their own NIC that are responsible for allocating the domain names. In the US now, although there are a number of Registrars that provide domain names, Network Solutions maintains the central database.
Each country has its own top-domain, for instance .uk for United Kingdom and ?.in? for India. Re-registration of domain is required every 2-5 years.